Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts. Outside medicine, the term means "the science of women". Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system.
Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians (see obstetrics and gynaecology). In many areas, the specialities of gynaecology and obstetrics overlap.
Examples of conditions dealt with by a gynaecologist are:
- Cancer and pre-cancerous diseases of the reproductive organs including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva
- Incontinence of urine
- Amenorrhoea (absent menstrual periods)
- Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual periods)
- Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods); a common indication for hysterectomy
- Prolapse of pelvic organs
- Infections of the vagina (vaginitis), cervix and uterus (including fungal, bacterial, viral, and protozoal)
- UTI and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
- Premenstrual Syndrome
- Other vaginal diseases
- There is some crossover in these areas. For example, a woman with urinary incontinence may be referred to a urologist.
As with all surgical specialties, gynaecologists may employ medical or surgical therapies (or many times, both), depending on the exact nature of the problem that they are treating. Pre- and post-operative medical management will often employ many standard drug therapies, such as antibiotics, diuretics, antihypertensives, and antiemetics. Additionally, gynaecologists make frequent use of specialized hormone-modulating therapies (such as Clomifene citrate and hormonal contraception) to treat disorders of the female genital tract that are responsive to pituitary or gonadal signals.
For lists of gynaecological drugs (by the ATC classification system), see ATC code G01 and ATC code G02.
Surgery, however, is the mainstay of gynaecological therapy. For historical and political reasons, gynaecologists were previously not considered "surgeons", although this point has always been the source of some controversy. Modern advancements in both general surgery and gynaecology, however, have blurred many of the once rigid lines of distinction. The rise of sub-specialties within gynaecology which are primarily surgical in nature (for example urogynaecology and gynaecological oncology) have strengthened the reputations of gynaecologists as surgical practitioners, and many surgeons and surgical societies have come to view gynaecologists as comrades of sorts. As proof of this changing attitude, gynaecologists are now eligible for fellowship in both the American College of Surgeons and Royal Colleges of Surgeons, and many newer surgical textbooks include chapters on (at least basic) gynaecological surgery.
Some of the more common operations that gynaecologists perform include:
- Dilation and curettage (removal of the uterine contents for various reasons, including completing a partial miscarriage and diagnostic sampling for dysfunctional uterine bleeding refractive to medical therapy)
- Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
- Oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries)
- Tubal ligation (a type of permanent sterilization)
- Hysteroscopy (inspection of the uterine cavity)
- Diagnostic laparoscopy – used to diagnose and treat sources of pelvic and abdominal pain; perhaps most famously used to provide a definitive diagnosis of endometriosis.
- Exploratory laparotomy – may be used to investigate the level of progression of benign or malignant disease, or to assess and repair damage to the pelvic organs.
- Various surgical treatments for urinary incontinence, including cystoscopy and sub-urethral slings.
- Surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse, including correction of cystocele and rectocele.
- Appendectomy – often performed to remove site of painful endometriosis implantation or prophylactically (against future acute appendicitis) at the time of hysterectomy or Caesarean section. May also be performed as part of a staging operation for ovarian cancer.
- Cervical Excision Procedures (including cryosurgery) – removal of the surface of the cervix containing pre-cancerous cells which have been previously identified on Pap smear.
In our clinics, planned and emergency gynecological operations are performed. High qualifications of our doctors and modern equipment allow for minimally invasive operations.
SURGERY-GYNECOLOGY IN KIEV CONDUCT THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF OPERATIONS:
HYSTEROSCOPY allows mini-surgery to remove a neoplasm or to treat a disease of the uterus.
LAPAROSCOPY allows you to conduct a diagnostic examination of the pelvic organs through small accesses in the abdominal wall using a laparoscope. When a pathology is detected, immediately take measures for its treatment with the help of a low-impact operation.
SMALL OPERATIONS. Access in such cases is made through the vagina, thus avoiding the aesthetic defects on the skin.
LOCAL OPERATIONS. Conducted with an incision in the abdominal wall.
Surgical gynecology is used to restore reproductive functions, remove tumors, as well as for aesthetic reasons.
Operations in gynecology
- Hymenoplasty (restoration of the hymen)
- Surgical defloration (dissection of the hymen)
- Diagnostic laparoscopy / laparotomy
- Laparoscopic tubectomy, ectopic pregnancy tubotomy
- Laparoscopic sterilization
- Salpingolysis and neosalpingostomy, removal of the tubal tube hydatitis by the laparoscopic or classical method
- Myomectomy (removal of fibromatous nodes) by the laparotomy method
- Myomectomy (removal of fibromatous nodes) by laparoscopic method
- Supravaginal amputation of the uterus by the laparoscopic method
- Excision of the intrauterine septum
- Polypectomy, diagnostic curettage of the walls of the uterus and cervical canal
- Polypectomy from the cervical canal
- Removal of intrauterine contraceptive with curettage of the walls of the uterus
- Surgical removal of an intrauterine contraceptive
- Perineal plasty (superficial defects, correction of postoperative scars, incapable stitches after episiotomy)
- Complete removal of the Bartholin gland cyst
- Marsupialization of the Bartholin gland cyst
- Removal of a fibromatous node with curettage of the walls of the uterus
- Laparoscopic removal of cysts of the left and right ovaries
- Laparoscopic removal of ovarian cyst, 1 category of complexity
- Laparoscopic removal of ovarian cyst 2 category of complexity
- Laparotomy removal of uterine appendages
- Diagnostic hysteroscopy
- Hysteroscopy with polypectomy
- Hysteroresectoscopy (removal of submucous myoma node)
- Hysteroresectoscopy with endometrial ablation
- Opening (abscess or cyst) Bartholin gland
- Plasticity of the labia minora
- Uterine fibroids
- Cysts and ovarian tumors
- Apoplexy (rupture) of the ovary
- Urinary incontinence
- Omission and prolapse of the genitals
- Pyo-inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis
- Restoration of hymen and defloration
- Separation of adhesions and solving the problem of obstruction of the fallopian tubes
- Ovarian resection